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آفریقا-ایران - پارك ملی ماسایی مارا در كنیا
 
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پارك ملی ماسایی مارا در كنیا

نوشته شده توسط :رهنما كسایی
دوشنبه 15 شهریور 1389-10:25 ق.ظ

پارك ملی ماسایی مارا كه در گویش محلی به عنوان مارا نامیده می شود، منطقه حفاظت شده حیات وحش بوده كه در جنوب غرب كشور كنیا واقع گردیده است. این پارك با پارك ملی " سرنگتی " در تانزانیا نیز همجوار بوده و به نوعی این دو پارك ملی در امتداد یكدیگر می باشند.



این پارك به دلیل حیواناتی  از قبیل انواع پرندگان، پستانداران و گونه های دیگر حیوانی كه در آن زندگی می كنند بسیار در جهان پر آوازه می باشد و هر سال توریست های بسیاری از سراسر جهان برای دیدن این پارك ملی به آن مسافرت می نمایند.

گونه های حیوانی از قبیل شیر، پلنگ، بوفالو، فیل و كرگدن به وفور در این پارك مشاهده شده و در این میان نسل كرگدن ها در این پارك در معرض تهدید قرار دارد. مطابق اخرین آمارها تعداد 40 عدد از این حیوان در سال 2000 میلادی در سرشماری ها در این پارك وجود داشته است.




دسته های بزرگی از اسب آبی نیز در این پارك در كنار رودخانه ها مشاهده شده و گونه چیتا نیز در این پارك به چشم می خورد، اما نسل این حیوان نیز در معرض تهدید قرار داشته و تعداد آن ها بسیار در حال كاهش می باشد. در حدود 450 گونه از پرندگان نیز در این پارك زندگی نموده كه از پرندگان كوچك مانند گنجشك تا پرندگانی مانند عقاب در این تقسیم بندی وجود دارند.

این پارك در خلال ماه های جولای تا اكتبر هر سال شاهد مهاجرت گونه های مختلف پرندگان، گربه سانان، زرافه، آهو و همچنین بوفالو های وحشی از پارك سرنگتی به داخل پارك ماسایی می باشد كه صحنه های بسیار بدیعی را به وجود آورده كه تعداد زیادی از آن ها تا كنون در مستند های حیات وحش كه از رسانه های تصویری جهان پخش می گردد انعكاس یافته و موجبات حیرت مردم سراسر جهان را در خصوص زندگی سراسر اسرار آمیز حیوانات به وجود آورده است.




مجموع مساحت این پارك ملی در حدود 1500 كیلومتر مربع بوده و دو پارك ماسایی و سرنگتی مجموعاً مساحتی در حدود 25 هزار كیلومتر مربع را در مرز دو كشور تانزانیا و كنیا به خود اختصاص داده اند. این پارك ملی در حدود 220 كیلومتر با پایتخت كنیا شهر نایروبی فاصله دارد.

نرخ ورودیه به داخل این پارك برای افراد بزرگ سال غیر كنیایی در سال 2009 میلادی 60 دلار و برای كودكان 30 دلار بوده و در داخل این پارك كمپ های زیادی برای استقرار گردشگران تدارك دیده شده است.




مطابق گزارشی كه در سال 2009 میلادی منتشر گردید، گونه های حیوانی این پارك ملی در حال انقراض بوده و در معرض تهدید قرار دارند. در این گزارش، تعداد زیاد گردشگرانی كه به این منطقه حفاظت شده در هر سال وارد می شوند و اقداماتی كه در تخریب محیط زیست انجام می دهند یكی از دلایل عمده كاهش تعداد گونه های حیوانی این پارك ذكر گردیده است.









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